APPLIED FLUID MECHANICS
C6MKII Fluid Friction Measurements - Issue 1
The Armfield Fluid Friction Measurements unit provides facilities for the detailed study of fluid friction head losses which occur when an incompressible fluid flows through pipes, fittings and flow metering devices. The unit is designed for use with the Armfield F1-10 Hydraulics bench.
> A unit for the detailed study of fluid friction head losses which occur when an incompressible fluid flows through pipes, fittings and flow metering devices.
> A substantial floor standing tubular steel frame supports test circuits comprising:
- 4 smooth-bore pipes of different diameters ranging from
4.5mm I.D. to 17.2mm I.D.
- artificially roughened pipe
- 90° bends (large & small radii)
- 90° elbow
- 90° mitre
- 45° elbow, 45° Y, 90° T
- sudden enlargement
- sudden contraction
- gate valve
- globe valve
- ball valve
- inline strainer
- perspex Venturi
- perspex orifice meter
- perspex pipe section with a Pitot tube & static tapping
- 38 tapping points
> Suitable for studying Reynolds' numbers from 103 to nearly 105
> A system of isolating valves, quick release manometer connection valves and self-sealing pressure tappings ensure fast accurate results
> Data logging accessory available
> Computer aided learning program available
> A user instruction manual provides installation, commissioning and maintenance data, together with student exercises.
> The unit is designed for use with the F1-10 Hydraulics bench
A wide range of measurements, demonstrations and training exercises are possible with the equipment:
> confirming the relationship between head loss due to fluid friction
and velocity for flow of water
> determining the head loss associated with flow through a variety of standard pipe fittings
> determining the relationship between pipe friction coefficients and Reynolds' number for flow through a pipe with roughened bore
> demonstrating the application of differential head devices in the measurement of flow rate and velocity
> providing practical training of pressure measurement techniques
> enhancing understanding of the hydraulic principles involved through the use of complementary computer software
Pipe friction is one of the classic laboratory experiments and has always found a place in the practical teaching of fluid mechanics.
With this unit friction head losses in straight pipes of very different sizes can be investigated over a range of Reynolds' numbers from 103 to nearly 105, thereby covering the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes in smooth pipes.In addition an artificially roughened pipe is supplied which, at the higher Reynolds' numbers, shows a clear departure from the typical smooth bore pipe characteristics.
In addition to the equipment for the study of losses in straight pipes, a wide range of accessories are standard including pipe fittings and control valves, a Venturi tube, an orifice plate assembly and a Pitot tube.
An arrangement of six pipes provides facilities for testing the following:
> 4 smooth-bore pipes of different diameters
> artificially roughened pipe
> 90° bends (large & small radii)
> 90° elbow
> 90° mitre
> 45° elbow
> 45° Y
> 90° T
> sudden enlargement
> sudden contraction
> gate valve
> globe valve
> ball valve
> inline strainer
> Perspex Venturi
> Perspex orifice meter
> Perspex pipe section with a Pitot tube & static tapping
test and published results comparisonenlarge
Moody diagram obtained from typical resultsenlarge
Short samples of each size test pipe are provided loose so that the students can measure the exact diameter and determine the nature of the internal finish. The ratio of the pipe diameter to the distance of the pressure tappings from the ends of each pipe has been selected to minimise end and entry effects. A system of isolating valves is provided whereby the pipe to be tested can be selected without disconnecting or draining the system. The arrangement allows tests to be conducted on parallel pipe configurations.
An optional floor standing hydraulics bench incorporates a sump tank and volumetric flow measurement facility. Rapid and accurate flow measurement is possible over the full working range of the apparatus. The level rise in the measuring tank is determined by an independant sight gauge. A 250ml capacity glass measuring cylinder is supplied for measuring the flow rate under laminar conditions (very low flows).
Each pressure tapping is fitted with quick action self-sealing connections. Probe attachments with an adequate quantity of translucent polythene tubing are provided so that any pair of pressure tappings can be rapidly connected.
Clear acrylic pipe section and test pipe samplesenlarge
1. 19.1mm O.D. x 17.2mm I.D.
2. 12.7mm O.D. x 10.9mm I.D.
3. 9.5mm O.D. x 7.7mm I.D.
4. 6.4mm O.D. x 4.5mm I.D.
5. 19.1mm O.D. x 15.2mm I.D. (Roughened)
Control valves and pressure tappingsenlarge
Distance between tappings: 1m
Number of tapping points: 38
C6MKII-10: Basic Fluid Friction Measurements
This comprises the framework containing the pipes and fittings. It requires an Armfield F1-10 Hydraulics bench plus an instrumentation system (see below).
C6MKII: Fluid Friction Measurements
This comprises the C6MkII-10 described above, plus a hydraulics bench.
An instrumentation option is required (see below).
Manual Data Acquisition
In order to complete the full range of experiments possible with the C6MkII, it is necessary to measure pressures over a greater range than a single instrument can provide. Armfield recommend the use of a water manometer for the low pressure measurements and an electronic pressure meter for the high pressure measurements.
H12-2: One metre pressurised water manometer
H12-8: Hand held digital pressure meter
Also available for use with manual data aquisition instruments is a software package which performs all the neccessary calculations from readings entered manually.
Order code:C6-301: Educational software (manual data entry)
Automatic Data Acquisition
C6-50: Computer data capture unit
The C6-50 is a small data logging unit which allows the recording of data to a suitable P.C. (not supplied). The unit comprises an interface device with USB port and cable, a turbine type flowmeter complete with associated pipework, and two independent pressure sensors with quick release fittings.
The unit is supplied with software which runs under Windows.
The software features real-time data display on a 'mimic diagram' of the apparatus, tabular and graphical display of logged data and calculated parameters, plus full educational help texts detailing operational procedures
and practical exercises.
The electrical sensors supplied with the C6-50 have been selected to measure over the full range of the C6 pressures and flowrates. However, in order to obtain accurate results at very low flows or differential pressures, it may be necessary to use a volumetric flow measurement method and/or a pressurised water manometer.
Recommended Instruments and Accessories
F1-10: Hydraulics bench
H12-8: Digital pressure meter
H12-2: 1m pressurised water
C6-301: Education software for manual data entry
C6-50: Data logging accessory with software
C1: Compressible Flow Bench
C2: Subsonic Wind Tunnel
C3: Multi-pump Test Rig
C4: Multi-purpose Flume
C7: Pipe Surge and Water Hammer
C9: Flow Meter Demonstration Unit
C10: Laminar Flow Table
C11: Flow in Pipe Networks
F1-18: Energy Losses in Pipes
F1-21: Flow Meter Demonstration
F1-22: Energy Losses in Bends
F1-18-301: Windows Program for F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes
F1-21-301: Windows Program for F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration
F1-22-301: Windows Program for F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends
Minimum computer requirements
10Mb free hard disk space
USB ports (C6-50 only)
(This computer is not supplied by Armfield).
Gross weight 165kg
Gross weight 325kg